However, in the case of Outline and evaluate restoration explanations for Gardner and Peter Tripp the outcome was not fatal because only minor effects were experienced. This is supported by Benington and Frank who found that animals sleep longer following learning.
If an animal is a predator, then it can sleep for longer, whereas for prey species, their sleep time is reduced, as they must remain alert to avoid predators.
Therefore, as the supply of amino acids is low this implies not much protein synthesis would take place during sleep, which fails to support the restorative claim that growth hormone is released during SWS which has an important role in protein synthesis.
In addition, it has been suggested that REM sleep may have evolved later to maintain brain activity, which supports the greater need for REM sleep in infants whose brains are developing. The bottlenose dolphin breathes through a blowhole and can only stay submerged for 20 minutes. Both situations can be criticised.
AO2 Support for the Restoration Theory comes from research into total sleep deprivation, whereby individuals have experienced constant wakefulness over a temporary period of time. A second explanation for sleeping differences between animals is explained by the need for foraging requirements.
Also, it has a clear link to the physiology of the body — which means it is a testable theory.
It fails to explain why we have a strong drive for sleep when sleep deprived, which is what the Restoration Theory would account for, and why there are different stages and cycles of sleep. Therefore, the view that sleep has a vital restorative function is weakly supported by research.
There are also methodological with where the animals have been observed, whether in a laboratory or in the wild. Small animals have a high metabolic rate and hence use more energy so therefore need more sleep. The majority of sleep deprivation research has been conducted on males, making the sample androcentric and not generalisable to females.
There are three key ways in which sleep increases the chances of an animal surviving, foraging requirements, predator avoidance and waste of time and energy conservation.
For instance, in modern society humans are no longer at risk of predation, unlike animals and our ancestors who would have been under threat during tribal warfare and so needed to sleep less and be vigilant. It also means sleeping in places where they will be hidden.
Another weaknesses of restorative explanations of the function of sleep is through the support alternative theories have gained, which serves to challenge the restoration theory. On one level the theory appears to have face validity; it would make sense that a species would avoid its predators by sleeping.
Furthermore, Horne also points out that amino acids are only freely available for 5 hours after a meal and people usually sleep several hours before going to bed. All activities use energy and animals with high metabolic rates use even more energy.
The theory is only relevant in our evolutionary past, and is not true of human sleep today. An example of a species that has adapted its sleep pattern to fit its environment is the bottlenose dolphin.
This shows that NREM sleep is more important for energy conservation; thus supporting evolutionary explanations. After 33 days, all sleep-deprived rats which suggests that a total lack of SWS after a while breaks down the body and kills a person.
The evidence is conflicting. For example, Everson et al found that sleep deprivation in rats causes them to increase their metabolic rate. He believes this occurs during periods of relaxed wakefulness.
This is known as unilateral sleep. This suggests a relationship between neural development and REM sleep. Key findings were that; brain mass was positively correlated with the amount of REM sleep but had no association with NREM, the sleep exposure site was negatively correlated with the amount of REM sleep the more dangerous the site, the less REM sleeptrophic position was correlated with the amount of REM and total sleep, with herbivores generally sleeping less than carnivores and BMR is negatively correlated with NREM and total sleep time, this was controversial.
However, this theory has been criticised are there are exceptions to this, as sloths which are very large creatures sleep for 20 hours a day.Nov 20, · AO1 According to the Restoration Theory, the function of sleep is to restore the brain and body by replenishing the levels of neurochemicals and restoring energy.
Home ‘Outline and evaluate the Restoration Theory as a function of sleep.’ (8 marks + 16 marks) Outline and evaluate two explanations for the maintenance of.
Outline and evaluate the restoration theory as an explanation of the function of sleep According to restoration theories, the purpose is to repair and renew the brain and the body through restoring energy resources, repair and growth of tissue cells and muscles and replenishing neurotransmitters.
Outline and evaluate restoration explanations of the function of sleep (8+16 marks) Outline and evaluate social psychological explanations of celebrity attraction (4+8 marks) Outline and evaluate social psychological explanations of celebrity attraction (4+8 marks).
Feb 14, · Outline and evaluate restoration explanations of the functions of sleep [4+16 marks] The two most influential restorative theories are those of Oswald () and Horne (). They propose that sleep serves a restorative function.
May 22, · Outline and evaluate restoration explanations of the functions of sleep. (4 marks + 16 marks) The restoration explanation to explain sleep proposed by Oswald () suggests there are 2 functions; SWS to enable body repair, and REM to enable brain recovery.
During SWS, a growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland is released so protein. Nov 20, · ‘Outline and evaluate the Evolutionary Theory as a function of sleep.’ (8 marks + 16 marks) ‘Outline and evaluate the Restoration Theory as a function of sleep.’ Outline and evaluate two explanations for the maintenance of relationships (8+ 16 marks).Download